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Hall Effect Analyzer

HCS-Hall Effect Measurement System & TFA Thin Film Analyzer

If a current is applied to a semiconducting device which is set into a magnetic field, the so called Hall Effect can be observed. It is caused by the Lorentz Force, which is affecting the charge carriers to move perpendicular to the magnetic field lines in circular paths.

As a result, there will appear an increase in charge carriers at one side, which will result in an electric field inside the device, perpendicular to the magnet field and current direction, as. The voltage of this field can be measured and is considered as Hall Voltage VHall.

A steady state will be reached when the force of Hall voltage and the Lorentz force compensate each other, so there is a proportional relation between Hall Voltage (VH), magnetic field (H), current (I), the so called Hall coefficient (RH). The Hall coefficient also depends on the thickness of the device (d).

From this relationship, the Hall Coefficient can be determined by measuring the Hall Voltage under a given field and current with a known device thickness, following the formula:

\(V_{H} = frac{R_{H} ⋅ I ⋅ H}{d}\) or \(R_{H} = frac{V_{H} ⋅ d}{I ⋅ H}\)

Depending on the type of sample (p-type, n-type), the Hall Voltage will be positive or negative and in case of only one charge carrier (electrons or holes) determines the transport, the Charge carrier density n and mobility m can be calculated using the formulas:
\(n = frac{1 }{R_{H} ⋅ e}\) and \(μ = frac{R_{H}}{ρ}\)
With e = charge of the carrier and ρ = resistivity of the material.
You can choose between a permanent magnet, which can measure the Hall Voltage at three different Field points (+ field, 0 field and – field) and an electric magnet that can continuously measure during increasing the magnetic field strength, resulting in a more accurate measurement.
Our instruments operate in agreement with national and international standards such as ASTM F76 – 08 (Standard Test Methods for Measuring Resistivity and Hall Coefficient and Determining Hall Mobility in Single-Crystal Semiconductors).


    HCS-Hall Effect Measurement System & TFA Thin Film Analyzer

    HCS 1
    The HCS System permits the characterization of semiconductor devices regarding their electric transport properties, in particular Hall-mobility, Charge Carrier Concentration, Resistivity and Seebeck Coefficient. The integrated desktop setups offer a complimentary product line-up from a basic, manual operated, Hall Characterization stage to an automized high temperature stage up to the innovative Halbach configuration for the characterization of most challenging samples.

    The systems can be equipped with different sample holder for various geometries and temperature requirements. An optional low temperature (LN2) attachments is available as well as a high temperature version up to 800°C, to ensure that all fields of application can be covered. Depending on the system configuration, either a permanent magnet, a water cooled electromagnet or a Halbach magnet provide magnetic field strength of up to 1 Tesla. The comprehensive Windows based software offers an easy to use graphical user interface to control the system parameters, define measurement procedures and temperature profiles as well as allows for an easy data evaluation, presentation and storage.
    Product number: HCS1


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